liberMed

Introduction:

digiBlitz delivers top-notch Business Landscape Transformation products to enhance the operations in Healthcare Businesses. It provides tailor-made solutions in the form of tools and IT components which would play a vital role in the betterment of day-to-day functionalities and business continuity. digiBlitz’s futuristic products do not restrict themselves to the current business trends and bottlenecks; and also expands its comfort to the upcoming tides and scenarios.

LiberMed is a Biomedical wing of the digiBlitz which helps in finding solutions for the Healthcare use cases. The products and solutions designed by the company follow the regulations and standards that are set by the FDA, CE, and ISO Authorities. The development of the product and service follows the following procedures:

  • Concept
  • Planning
  • Design
  • Validation
  • Launch
  • Post Market

Use Cases:
1. Vital Parameters Monitoring
2. WBC Detection
3. Glucose level detection and Insulin Control
4. Lab on Chip

Wearable Device:

Basic Idea:
Wearable health monitoring technologies, including smartwatches and fitness trackers, have attracted considerable consumer interest over the past few years. Not only has this interest has been mainly encouraged by the rapid demand growth in the wearable technology market for the ubiquitous, continuous, and pervasive monitoring of vital signs, but it has been leveraged by the state-of-the-art technological developments in sensor technology and wireless communications.

The generic architecture is divided into four modules: (A) Body Area Network, which can have different approaches, as we will see ahead; (B) Data Logger or Portable Unit whit all the electronic; (C) Data Analysis, an offline method to see the recorded data; (D) and Real-Time Monitoring that enables to visualize live data.

Data Mining:
The wearable scenarios can be classified into three aspects: scenario of use (home/remote or clinical environment); the type of monitoring (offline or online); and the type of user (healthy or patient).

Based on the above classification wearable device can be divided into:

  1. Activity area—where fitness/wellness and non-medical applications, self-monitoring and rehabilitation procedure are included.
  2. Prediction: consists in the identification of events that have not occurred yet, providing medical information to help in the prevention of further chronic problems, and sometimes, can support a diagnosis detection.
  3. Anomaly detection: responsible for the identification of unusual patterns that are not conformed to the expected behavior, based on the classification methods to distinguish normal data from the outlier data. Alarm is the subtask mainly used in anomalies detection, raising an alarm as soon as an anomaly is detected.
  4. Diagnosis support is one of the most important tasks of clinical monitoring, resulting in a clinical decision according to retrieved knowledge of vital signs, health records and anomaly detection data.

Vital Parameters Monitoring:

Concept:
The human body has multiple different physiological signs that can be measured: from electrical signs to biochemical, human biosignals are possible to be extracted and be used to better understand the bodily health status and reaction to external factors. The traditional vital parameters that are measured are temperature, heartbeat, blood pressure, oxygen saturation and respiration rate. The parameters are measured by contact based methods.

Heart Rate:
Photoplethysmography is a technique that uses optical means to instantaneously measure the changes in volume in human tissue. Green light-emitting-diode is in direct contact with the tissue is used for HR acquisition. A portion of the emitted light is absorbed by human tissue while the other portion is reflected. A photo-detector is used to record the intensity of the received light. This intensity changes during the systolic and diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle. The PD can be placed either at the same side of the light emitter or the opposite side, depending on whether the acquisition is in reflectance-mode or transmission-mode.

Blood Pressure:
Blood pressure is considered the most important cardiopulmonary parameter, indicating the pressure exerted by blood against the arterial wall. BP provides indirect information about the blood flow when the heart is contracting (systole) and relaxing (diastole) and can also indicate cellular oxygen delivery. It is influenced by several human physiological characteristics: cardiac output; peripheral vascular resistance; blood volume and viscosity; and vessel wall elasticity. Ambulatory BP monitoring allows getting BP readings several times a day, which is ideal to monitoring high blood pressure. BP is traditionally measured using inflatable pressure cuffs with a stethoscope on the patient’s arm. This method was adapted to perform autonomous BP measurement, including a fully automated inflatable cuff that measure BP by relating external pressure with the magnitude of arterial volume pulsations.
The system comprises of microcontroller, pressure transducer, cuff, motor and signal conditioning and ADC circuit for conversions. When the user presses the button, microcontroller sends a control signal which turns on the motor. The motor pumps air into cuff. The pressure transducer generates two output signals with a time gap of 20ms. The first output signal corresponds to systolic pressure and second one corresponds to diastolic pressure. These two voltage levels are converted to their digital equivalents and then fed to the microcontroller. The microcontroller compares these values with those stored lookup table, fetch the matched systolic and diastolic pressures and displays on LCD.

Body Temperature:
Body temperature is the outcome of the balance between heat production and heat loss in the body, being its measurement vital to avoid many elements defunctionalization due to high temperatures. BT divides in two measures: core temperature (CT) and skin temperature. Skin temperature varies within a wider range of temperatures than core temperature, as the body’s thermoregulation mechanisms regulate core temperature. Skin temperature is affected by blood circulation and is also related with HR and metabolic rate. External factors such as air circulation, ambient temperature and humidity also play an important role in this body temperature regulation mechanism.

WBC Detection:

Concept:
Counting the number of white blood cells provides valuable information about your state of health. This test requires a blood draw. However a new technology is being developed to count white blood cells non-invasively. Invasive Blood cell counting is typically performed using flow cytometry. In non-invasive method the narrow width of the capillaries allows them to act as a flow cell in which cells pass single file through the blood vessels. A special lens focuses LED light on to the capillaries specifically illuminating the hemoglobin in the RBCs, which produces a red signal. Measuring the amount of oxygenated hemoglobin via light absorbance or scattering of red light is the concept behind pulse oximetry, This signal is detected by a light sensor producing a snapshot in which RBCs are bright red spots while the WBCs are represented by the negative space between RBCs, which can be counted.

ST Microcontrollers

A microcontroller is an integrated circuit that contains a microprocessor along with memory and associated circuits and that controls some or all of the function of an device or system.

STM32L4+ series
STM32L4 technology providing more performance (up to 120 MHz), more embedded memory (up to 2 MB of Flash memory and 640 KB of SRAM) and richer graphics and connectivity features while keeping our best-in-class ultra-low-power capability.
One of the prominent MCU that we are going to use in our project is STM32L4R9AI.

Block Diagram:

MCU: STM32L4R9AI, STM32L4x, STM32L6x, STM32L7x, series
Sensors:
MEMS Microphones: (MP23ABS1/IMP34DT05)
Environmental Sensors: Humidity and Temperature (HTTS221)
Pressure Sensor: (LPS22HH – digital)
Motion Sensors: (IAS2DH)
Accelerometer (ISM330DHCX – 3D accelerometer plus gyro)
Magnetometer (IIS2MDC)
Pulse/PPG sensor
Blood pressure sensor.

Development Kits: 32L4R9IDISCOVERY Discovery kit